Dental veneers are usually applied on the front surfaces of the teeth, and the coating material that will be used varies depending on the loss of substance and deformity of the teeth. The coatings are made by taking measurements from the patients and they are made specially for the patient.

Veneers hide stained, worn , broken and rough teeth, and they reflect light.

Types of coatings used today ;

—Laminate veneers (leaf porcelain ),

—Porcelain veneer,

—Zirconium veneer,

—E-max veneer.

What is a laminate veneer?

Laminate veneers, are aesthetic veneers applied to the front teeth. To apply these veneers, non or very little abrasion is done to the teeth. Thus, healthy tooth tissue is preserved. Laminated veneers, which are designed in a very fine structure, cover only the front surfaces of the teeth and, in some cases, the incisors as well.

Who can have laminate veneers?

Laminate veneers can be applied to anyone who has completed the development of their teeth and jaw and is not satisfied with the appearance of their teeth and smile. We can list the situations where laminate veneers are needed as follows;

– In cases where there are fractures and abrasions in the front teeth

– For those who have discoloration of the teeth when whitening treatments are not enough

– For patients who have slightly crowded teeth and do not prefer orthodontic treatment

– In cases where there are gaps called diastemas between the front teeth

– Superficial cavities on the front teeth

– In cases where the length of the teeth is disproportionate or short

– In cases where the enamel of the teeth is genetically rough or if there are structural defects

– In the presence of anatomical disorders in the shape of the teeth

– In the presence of old, discolored and worn fillings

In patients who cannot achieve adequate smile aesthetics after orthodontic treatment,

– In the context of smile design.

Are laminate veneers durable?

Lamina veneers are made from high strength porcelain. As a result, they are extremely resistant to abrasion. However, because of their thin structure, they are more sensitive than metal-supported porcelains that surround the entire tooth. For this reason, it is not recommended to apply them on the back teeth where the chewing force is felt to be high.

Laminate veneers applied correctly to the right area can be used healthily for many years if the necessary oral care is taken.

Laminate procedure

First, the patient undergoes a complete oral examination and general oral hygiene and health are checked.

– If necessary, gum treatments, cleanings and teeth whitening treatments are applied to teeth where laminate application is not planned.

– If there are cavities on the teeth to be treated, they are cleaned.

– If there is a disproportion in the size of the gums or other aesthetic problems, they are corrected by minor surgical procedures before the applications of laminate applications.

– Photographs and x-ray are taken to determine the condition before the procedure.

– A temporary application is made to the teeth with the composite material, and the image that will emerge at the end of the treatment is presented to the patient. At this stage, the teeth are not damaged.

– If the patient has other aesthetic expectations in the planned teeth, they are included in the planning.

– The temporary application is removed from the tooth. If necessary, a very small amount of abrasion is done on the teeth using special burs.

– The models are obtained by taking visual images using an intraoral 3D scanner. The digital impressions are sent to the lab for the design and production of laminate veneers. Thus, the laminate veneers are made, measuring the teeth with special impression materials.

In this method, the porcelain is processed on the models created by the measurements taken, and since the technician is involved in the production phase of the veneer, it is possible that the treatment takes several sessions,

– The created laminates are repeated in the patient’s mouth; if there are no problems, they are bonded to the tooth surfaces with special processes called adhesive methods.

– This is the most effective and precise method known for creating a laminate veneer.

The color of the teeth for which the procedure is not planned is determined and the colors of the laminates to be made are decided.

What are the obstacles to having laminated veneers?

In cases where there is excessive crowding in the anterior teeth, laminate veneers may not be sufficient and orthodontic treatment may be needed first. In such cases, other coatings with more abrasion may be preferred. In patients with excessive clenching problems, it is recommended that the clenching or grinding problems be resolved prior to beginning laminate veneer procedures.

What are porcelain veneers?

Porcelain veneers are used when dental abrasions are too severe to be treated with filling methods.

Advantages of porcelain veneers

– Porcelain veneers are distinguished by their durability due to the advantage of their metal framework.

– Porcelain veneers on a metal base are more economical than other veneer methods.

– Because of the porcelain material, they can also be aesthetically pleasing.

– The materials used are safe and have no side effects.

Porcelain veneer procedure

First, a detailed intra-oral examination is performed to check for dental deficiencies, teeth with excessive loss of substance, cavities.

– If there are any needs such as tooth extraction, gum treatment and teeth cleaning before zirconium veneers, these treatments are applied.

– Impressions are taken and plaster models are made to prepare temporary linings and show the condition of the mouth before treatment begins.

– The teeth to be treated and the surrounding tissues are anesthetized with a local anesthetic. The teeth are reduced to a shape and size that the porcelain veneer can comfortably fit over.

– Measurements are taken to obtain the model necessary for the production of the porcelain. When taking these measurements, most silicone-based impression materials are used.

Then the patient’s chewing movements and the closing of the teeth are determined with special dental candles. Temporary veneers made of acrylic material are obtained according to the patient’s cut and reduced teeth. Temporary veneers are obtained in two ways: the direct method using the impression previously taken in the patient’s mouth and the indirect method prepared on the model obtained. These temporary prostheses are then attached to the patient’s mouth with an easily removable adhesive material and the first session of treatment is completed.

– During the second session, which is held a few days after the first session with standard porcelain veneers, the porcelain pieces that form the veneer framework are repeated and checked for harmony. Adjustments can be made if necessary.

After the compatibility of the porcelain frameworks is ensured, the veneers are repeated with the processed porcelain. During this repeat, existing heights and closure problems are determined and corrected. Final adjustment and esthetic checks of the porcelain veneers are performed. If there are any problems, it may be necessary to reprocess the porcelain and repeat this step.

– After the porcelain repeat step, the veneers are sent to the laboratory for the polishing step

– In the final session, the porcelain veneers are permanently attached to the teeth and the treatment is completed.

Which materials are used in porcelain veneers?

Chromium-nickel or chromium-cobalt alloys, which are extremely durable, are generally used in the metal substructures of porcelain veneers. In the upper parts, specially produced dental ceramics with high aesthetic properties are used.

What is zirconium?

Zirconium (zircon, zirconia) is a transition metal discovered in the 18th century. From aerospace to military, zirconium is used in many fields. Because of its corrosion resistance of zirconium, it is a preferred metal in many areas species. Zirconium is white and permeable and therefor it is preferred to be used in dentistry as base of zirconium-ceramic crowns.

Who can use the zirconia crowns?

Zirconia crowns can be applied to everyone. It has no allergens and can be used in a big range. There is also no age limit. The treatment will take on average about 5 days.

What are the advantages of zirconia crowns compared to other crowns?

Zirconia crowns have more advantages then metal ceramic crowns. They are translucent and white. Thanks to the transmission of light, zirconia crowns look more similar to natural tooth. Metal crowns do not have this advantage. Contrary to metal crowns, zirconium is resistant to corrosion and therefore the colour does not change and it also does not leave a metallic taste in the mouth. Are zirconium crowns harmful to the body? The zirconium crowns are not harmful to the body. This material is tissue-friendly.

Do zirconia crowns cause for gum pigmentation?

Zirconium does not cause for infections on the gums because it is resistant to corrosion. If the patient takes care of his oral hygiene there will be no problem. Sometimes teeth with

change from natural colour. Zirconium beholds his own colour and natural look. In this case the colour change is visible under the thin gum. The origin of the discoloration is not because of the zircon crown but the natural tooth (root).

Is zirconium expensive?

Zirconium is more expensive than metal ceramic crowns. This because zirconium is made by a special 3-dimensional computer program, called CAD/CAM. Also the technicians must work very carefully and precisely. Zircon is more expensive because it is used in many fields in dentistry and it also needs to be prepared in many steps.

Is it possible to make zirconia crowns on implants?

Zirconium can be applied on the implant and it did not show any interaction with the titanium.

Does the transmittance of teeth disappear with zirconia crowns?

The light transmission of the natural tooth and the zircon crown is identical. It can especially be used by patients who wish an aesthetic look.

How long last the treatment of zirconium coating?

The treatment will take on average about 5 days.

What is Emax Crown?

Various crown materials are used in dentistry in order to provide a natural and aesthetic appearance for patients. Emax crown are made through baking ceramics without the use of any metals for its natural color and durability. This ceramic material that combines strength and beauty, is among the aesthetic materials that dentists prefer quite often since the  the absence of metal content and the high light transmittance bring along better results.

How are Emax Crowns Prepared?

After the examination of the teeth, patients and dentist discuss which teeth are suitable for E-max crowns. Once the decision is made, a digital impression of patient’s teeth is made with a intraoral camera to be transmitted to the computer which controls milling. Then, the shade of the crown is matched with the natural teeth. At last, the dentist fits the Emax crown on the tooth and apply final adjustments. Total time spent in this procedure changes from person to person.

On which type of teeth can Emax crowns be applied?

Emax crowns are frequently applied to the  incisors by dentists since the absence of metal content and high light permeability provide a natural and aesthetic appearance. It can also be applied to the other teeth which do not exert much force. Other preferred areas of Emax crowns are as follows.

Stained Teeth:  Emax crowns are perfect option for those who have stained teeth caused by acidic and colored drink or nicotine use.

Crooked Teeth: EMax crowns are preferred for arranging and restoring the structure of deformed, disfigured and crooked teeth. Dentists often prefers Emax crowns to fic anterior teeth which are often crooked.

Post Root-Canal: Teeth that have undergone root canal treatment tend to be more fragile and sensitive. Emax crowns are also preferred to strenghten teeth.

Fractured Teeth:  Emax crowns are also used for the restoration of  fractured teeth due to traumas or accidents.

Advantages of E-max Crown :

E-Max crowns are preferred very often due to its several advantages to fix damaged, disfigured or stained teeth.

Natural Look: E-max crowns are all-ceramic and do not contain any metal. Thus, they provide a natural and lifelike apperance.

Durability: consists of glass ceramic and thus has excellent resistance to chewing behavior. The possibility of being chipped is much less compared to other type of crowns.

Avoids Tartar Buildup: The slippery surface of the Emax crown prevents the formation of tartar on the teeth and thus prevents the occurrence of gum diseases.

Disadvantages of E-Max Crown :

Even though there are many advantages that make E-max crowns preferrable, there are few disadvantages that dentists and patients should be aware of.

  • Natural look and durability of E-Max crown come at a higher price compared to other type of crowns.
  • E-Max crowns may not be suitable for back teeth which are more likely to be used for hard biting.
  • E-Max crowns may not be suitable for darker teeth.
  • E-Max crowns are suitable for small bridges.

How Long Do E-Max Crowns Last?

E-Max crowns can last much longer than regular crowns with proper oral care and regular dentist visits.